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duchy of lüneburg

[19], In the 13th and 14th centuries the regional magistracies (Gogerichte) were responsible for the administration of justice. He was born into the royal family of Ernest Augustus, the duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. Search tips. Under this new arrangement, each of the brothers would exercise power in succession, but only one of them would marry a woman of appropriate rank (so only their children could inherit). In addition, the two capitals, Lüneburg and Brunswick, remained in the common ownership of the House of Welf until 1512 and 1671 respectively. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburgball Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg ... Preceded by. Here the local families, the von Bernstorffs and the von Lüneburgs, were not only responsible for lower and higher courts, but also ran the administration of the principality on behalf of the duke. After both brothers had died in 1464 and 1471 respectively, Frederick the Pious left the abbey again in order to hold the reins of power for his 3-year old nephew, Henry the Middle, the son of Otto of Lüneburg and Anna of Nassau. The duchy was abolished in 1918. Corrections? In the 16th century, in addition to noble councillors, who by this time were known as Landräte, there were often learned, foreign advisors. The conscription of the Lehnsmiliz resulted from their feudal obligations to the dukes of Celle; that of the militia from their obligation to their landlords. [6] In the military conflict that followed, neither the Brunswicks nor the Wittenbergs were able to enforce their claims, and only the peace of Hanover in 1373, ended the war, at least for a time. John (c. 1242 – 13 December 1277), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 until his death. [22], Until the 17th century there were very few standing armies. After Duke Bernard died in 1434, his eldest son, Otto became the ruling prince. Only the Duke's bodyguard and the soldiers guarding the residence in Celle were in the permanent employ of the dukes. In the course of the clashes that now arose between the dukes and the town of Lüneburg, numerous battles were fought across the entire country. Example: type "5 cent*" to find coins of 5 cents and 5 centimes. [12], Personal disagreements between the brothers Ernest and Francis in 1539 led to the emergence of a domain at Gifhorn, the so-called Duchy of Gifhorn. they levied the manorial obligations due to the Duke. Göttingen, 1922, Martin Krieg: Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Amtsbezirke im ehemaligen Fürstentum Lüneburg, p.103ff. Little information is available about exactly how these advocacies were established. In 1671 the barony of Dannenberg went back to the Welf line in Celle. Coins from the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The necessary tax increases led to serious clashes with the estates. There was no clear division of responsibility; the choice of court was left to the plaintiff. To search an expression, simply put quotation marks around it. Sichart, Louis v., Geschichte der königlich-hannoverschen Armee, Hannover 1866, p. 1 ff. The old office Kammerrat was replaced by a privy councillor (Geheime Rat) who was primarily responsible for matters of foreign policy. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/place/Lauenburg-former-duchy-Germany. The Celle advocate (Vogt), the chancellor and the vice-chancellor also belonged to the government. [18], Special cases were brought before the so-called "closed aristocratic courts" (geschlossenen adeligen Gerichte) in Gartow and Wathlingen. In return for renunciating his participation in the government of the principality, Francis received Gifhorn Castle as compensation along with the Ämter of Fallersleben, Gifhorn and Isenhagen. Together, the two principalities continued to form the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg which remained undivided according to imperial law, something that is clear from the fact that inter alia all the princes of the various lines carried the title of Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. [12], When Duke Henry went against a gentleman's agreement with his brother William and married Ursula of Saxe-Lauenburg in 1569, he had forsake sharing the government of the principality and was compensated instead with the Amt of Dannenberg and the Klosteramt of Scharnebeck. When Duke Ernest died, his sons were still minors, and their two uncles, Otto and Francis, refused the regency. After Duke Henry's death in 1416, he was followed by his two sons, William and Henry. [2][5], The town of Lüneburg supported the Wittenbergs and took the opportunity to escape from the immediate influence of the duke, destroying the ducal castle on the Kalkberg on 1 February 1371 and forcing him to relocate his residence to Celle. Martin Krieg: Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Amtsbezirke im ehemaligen Fürstentum Lüneburg, p. 91ff. This would continue the ducal lineage and maintain the unity of the Principality. The towns of Celle, Harburg, Lüchow, Dannenberg, Hitzacker and Soltau were independent administrations and not part of the Ämter system. But reconciliation with the town of Lüneburg in 1562 and the associated acquisition of part of the principality's debt and imperial taxes by the town played a major role in easing the parlous financial situation. 2, p. 593ff. This family acquired the inheritance of the Guelph family by marriage — around the year 1000 — of Azzo II with Kunigunde of Altdorf, daughter of Welf II. The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. The capital is Lüneburg and the population is around 353,000. Following Henry's resignation ten years later, William officially reigned alone until his death in 1592, but due to serious mental problems, he only played a very limited part in political life and spent his last years in mental derangement. When the Principality of Lüneburg emerged as a result of the division of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1269, the domain of the Lüneburg princes consisted of a large number of territorial rights in the region of Lüneburg. In 1592, after the death of Duke William, the territory was enlarged with the Ämter of Hitzacker, Lüchow and Warpke, but Henry's demands for a transfer of sovereignty were not met. From 1378, the seat of the principality was in Celle. For example, they were able to considerably increase their estate in the region of Gifhorn through the purchase of the village of Fallersleben, the County of Papenteich and Wettmarshagen. The Lüneburg War of Succession resulted in a large plenitude of power going to the estates within the principality . 676 Related Articles [filter] This institution remained as the highest state authority even after Ernest's sons took power. The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. The troops were deployed during this period in several European wars, including those in Venice, Spain and the Netherlands. After the Danish–Prussian War of 1864, it passed to Prussia; Prussia’s king, William I, became duke of Lauenburg. Ducatus Luneburgensis Adiacentiumq regionum delineatio (Duchy of Lüneburg) This is an original, old-colored copper engraved map of the Duchy of Lüneburg by Johann Janssonius (1588 - 1664) from 1640. George William soon displaced John in Lüneburg, but had to cede Calenberg to John, and also the Principality of Grubenhagen, which had been acquired by the House of Lüneburg in 1617.[11]. [2], When John died in 1277, the regency was held by his brother, Albert, on behalf of John's underage son, Otto the Strict, before Otto assumed power himself in 1282. Ernst Schubert in Geschichte Niedersachsens, Vol. Thereafter the Ämter were responsible for the initial handling of civil law matters for the majority of subjects in the principality. Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburgball was born as a 2ball, later adopted by Germaniaball, Franciaball, East Franciaball and HREball. In 1728 his nephew George Louis , elector of Hanover and, as George I, king of Great Britain and Ireland, was recognized as heir by Emperor Charles VI; thus, Lauenburg became attached to Hanover. In 1618 several council chambers (Ratsstuben) were set up in accordance with a new ordinance, the Regimentsordnung. In charge of the Amt was a bailiff-cum-magistrate (Amtmann), who was appointed by the duke. Since the 16th century these courts lost their influence and disputes about forested land were decided by other courts. After the death of Ernest the Confessor in 1546 a regency was formed for his minor sons. The instruction issued by their father in 1318 whereby the principality would be divided after his death between Otto III and his brother, William II, was ignored by the brothers and in 1330 they assumed joint control of an undivided state. You may use an asterisk as a wildcard. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Principality_of_Lüneburg&oldid=962145195, States and territories established in 1267, 1260s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire, 1705 disestablishments in the Holy Roman Empire, Former states and territories of Lower Saxony, Articles with German-language sources (de), Lower Saxony articles missing geocoordinate data, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 June 2020, at 10:21. The Kammerrat was responsible for key policy decisions, particularly in financial matters and the area of foreign policy, while the duties of the chancery were restricted merely to administration. The Head of State is Duke Ernest IV. In addition, they were the administrative centre for the ducal estate, i.e. William left 15 children, including seven sons: Ernest, Christian, Augustus, Frederick, Magnus, George, and John. Because of his role in the Hildesheim Diocesan Feud and the associated political opposition to Emperor Charles V, Henry was forced to abdicate in 1520 in favour of his sons Otto and Ernest the Confessor. The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany.Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg. Maps in Latin. The two brothers reigned jointly until the death of Otto III in 1352, leaving William in sole charge until his own death in 1369. Prince of Wolfenbuttel at popflock.com The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. Beneath him were the scribes, most of whom came from the Lüneburg clergy. The butler and the chamberlain were initially supplied by the vom Berge family and, when they died out, the von dem Knesebecks became the chamberlains and the von Behrs were the butlers. [15], In the 13th and 14th centuries, regional magistracies (Gogerichte) handled the local administration of the principality. In 1728 his nephew George Louis, elector of Hanover and, as George I, king of Great Britain and Ireland, was recognized as heir by Emperor Charles VI; thus, Lauenburg became attached to Hanover. John (c. 1242 – 13 December 1277), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 until his death. These offices are mentioned up to the 14th century, but had largely lost their political influence, by the turn of that century. The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.wikipedia. At the 1527 Landtag recess, even those nobles who had been hostile declared their support for the new faith. In addition to the exercising juridical authority they were responsible inter alia, for "the muster of tied villeins, the organization of defence and for taking charge of the militia" (Aufgebot der folgepflichtigen Hintersassen, Verteidigungsorganisation bis hin zur Sorge für die Landwehren). After the disbandment of the common army for the overall House of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1644, elements of its regiments joined the Principality of Lüneburg and formed the Lüneburg Army. 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