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medieval lithuanian surnames

(Not, however, anthroponymol-ogy asmenvardmokslis as the triple compounds normally are not practiced in Lithuanian). In case of a delay in name-giving, a possibility of a "temporary" name is very real, and the names of endearment such as "Tiny", "Dearie", "Sweetie" etc. It seems logical that when the time came for the Princes to take part in the It is a diminutive because it contains the medieval diminutive suffix -ken, of which the modern equivalent is -ke in Dutch (though -je is even more modern and commonplace) and -chen in German. though on the whole contemporary Christian names were in the majority: Janis, Thus the misspelt Lithuanian morpheme remains semantically obscure, as the examples given above of the morpheme Ky- attest. 9) LE XV, 556. It could be argued here that the term pravardë 'nickname' has been used in the pre-Christian period, as by the psychology of colloquialiasm in an event of characterization a person was given a nickname. Cornish Surnames. This change leads into another one, namely, into the use of patronyms and nicknames. The word itself is hardly used any more in anybody's active vocabulary, but it survives as a surname. The old Lithuanian names indicate that our forefathers were making their names mostly of the stems: gail-... taut-... kant-... mant-... etc. Kenzgall, Kenzgal, Keszgal, Genzegal, Kgezghal, Kinsgal, Kynsggail, Kynsgalo, Such process implies a change of a name, which process appears best demonstrated by the personal names of the family of Algirdas, ruler of Lithuania in the 14th century. The practice became a factual one when after taking the Christian name the pagan one remained with a person in his everyday life, or the person retained his pre-Christian name for the customary social, traditional and official needs, and ultimately the previous vardas became one's pavardë 'surname'. Morphemically those derivatives are conceivable, however, practically they would be rare. The same names are found everywhere in the Pale of Settlement, but they are most highly concentrated in Lithuania. isbn: 91-7192-123-8; bd. Although we do not arrive at the solution of the problem of what was the system of the pre-Christian Lithuanian giving of a name, the above quotation of Alfreds Gaters suggests that the material of the primitive nomenclature contained data caused by various contrasting events and unknown circumstances. nariui, tikint magiðka vardo galia, galinèia veikti vaiko likimà. The surname could also refer to someone from any of the various villages and towns named Majewo in Poland. However, such an anthropo-nym and its position just after the first name would be identical with the term of patronym because of its concept and the position, and it would appear as analogy to and under the influence of the Russian tria nomina system. and B. Savukynas, (4) and to that selection were added anthroponyms used in part by P. Jonikas in his article in the Lithuanian Encyclopedia. #1 - NOAH m : Derived from the Hebrew name נוֹחַ (Noach) meaning "rest, comfort". (Vygantas, Algirdo sûnus, XIV a. pabaigos Kernavës Kunigaikðtis... aktuose sutinkamas ir jo vardas And it also tends to prove the rule that no rigid system or ritual of the giving of the name was established in pagan Lithuania and the nomenclature has indeed been a casual one and it has been free rather than dependent on definitely established categories. Recorded in a number of spellings including Kmiec, Kmieciak, Kmicicki, Kmiecik, Kmicie, and the German Kemet, Kemetz, and Kmietsch, and others, this is a surname of Polish origins, which is now widely recorded in Middle Europe and as far away as Lithuania. List of the Most Common Surnames starting with "Y" in the U.S. Middle Ages). It is further understood that the term pavardë has been invented when the Christian name appeared as the first name, therefore pavardë functions as another name, i.e. 1 testa: Ponas… testo jumus mylastyvas Mž117. 18 This event indicated a possibility that a name which is found in the documents could be a name assumed by the person or given by the attendants and thus entered the document. To take the example of the patronymic derivatives of the Christian name ]onas John' it would provide the following patronyms: Jonaitis, Jonytis, Jonelis, Jonukas, Jonynas, Jononis, Jonënas, Jonulis, Jonikas, etc., i.e. 2). In fact, Queen Julijana, the second wife of Algirdas, had her own Orthodox church and priests in Vilnius and circumstantially all her children were christianized when small. A. Salys's logic inadvertently coincides with the logic of the giving of a name in the Christian religion, particularly in the Roman Catholic, where a ritual has to be fulfilled, i.e., the infant has to be christened as soon as possible after its birth. Top Surnames. Nach oberrheinischen (Cf. The rule of Lithuanian grammar would be working It comes from an Old English word meaning “metal worker,” and a variation of it results in Luxembourg’s top surname, Schmit. Kaplan or Caplan is also a surname common among Ashkenazi Jews, usually indicating descent from the priestly lineage (the kohanim), similar to the etymological origin of the common Hebrew surname Cohen. person reciting or telling a fairy-tale, i.e., a folk-tale, would tend to include and use the names of living persons in some way connected with the elements of the tale, namely, spirits, ghosts, animals, etc. When the noble names were abbreviated and reduced to the mere means of calling, e.g., Algirdas-Algis, Vytautas-Vytas, Þygimantas-Þygas, etc., the giving of such a simplified name to a person must also have lost its significance and importance in the methods or traditions of performing of the giving of a name. From Medieval Latin algorithmus, a by-form of algorismus introduced under the influence of Ancient Greek ἀριθμός (arithmós, “ number ”). Medieval Dutch and medieval (Low) German diminutive of ARNOLD. Thus because of a liberal changing of his name by King Vytautas there is no ascertainment of the rituals or the traditions of the giving and the holding of a name system in Lithuanian paganism, interrupted by the circumstantial taking of Christian names by himself and also by his cousins. It has already been referred to above that the Lithuanian patronyms morphemically expand in large numbers because of the great variety of the patronymic suffixes in the Standard Lithuanian, those diminutive, 'endearing, pejorative and the like. XV, pp. Notes on Selected Polish Surnames. (LE XV, 13, ff.) could be substituting for the formal ones. 12. as the FEN Learning is part of Sandbox Networks, a digital learning company that operates education services and products for the 21st century. #6 - MILLER: Occupational surname referring to a person who owned or worked in a grain mill, from Middle English mille "mill". In Lithuania, these surnames are mainly occupational: Soifer (scribe), Dayen (judge), Melamed (teacher) and Khait (tailor). ... An index of late-period masculine and feminine given names taken from a dictionary of Polish surnames. The terminology of Lithuanian onomastics is obviously very limited, and is based mostly on the translation of the international terminology, e.g. tautos; tëvai, duodami vaikui vardà, juo iðsako savo viltis ir linkëjimus. (19) P. Jonikas, "Asmenvardþiai ir vietovardþiai", op. The name corresponded to the person, and human essence was expressed in it. (Swedish Medieval Personal Names), E.H. Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn från Medeltiden surnames. (28) B. Savukynas and K, Kuzavinis, Vardai ir þodþiai, op, cit., p. 46, Vilnius, 1971. Differences from the Lithuanian version: Red - additions in German text only; Green - different word or surname order only in German version. 16. The written records actually started with the delayed oncoming of Christianity, and consequently the earliest recorders of Lithuanian data were the Christian missionaries from foreign countries. Karijotas of Lithuania was born circa 1314 to Gediminas (c1275-1341) and Jewna of Polotsk (c1280-c1344) and died circa 1361 of unspecified causes. ... Others, such as Kramer (or Krämer), were medieval names for traders. To take the quotation: "Kenenam... nepatyka, kam taids vinkuorðs vuords (Francis), ju nusaucja Kenens par Prancisvilèijanu" {to a King... was not a likable name because of only one single stem word Francis, then the King was called #9 - RODRIGUEZ #10 - WILSON: Means sollemnis N N solemn observance, religious ceremony; customary practice/usage; ritual offereings (pl. "vicarius Lithuaniae eiusdemque nacionis et linguae." Morsom — Recorded in the spellings of Morston, Morson and Morsom, this is an English post medieval surname. Other can also be used to choose medieval bynames, but it very unusual practice when in a work written in Lithuanian on a subject of Lithuanian grammar Some names having acquired an adverse reputation (Jogaila) and the names of derisory or jocular meaning (Traidenis, Sirputa, Svilenis) were never popular and are never included in the generally applicable and used nomenclature. Lithuania is a country in northeastern Europe with a population of roughly 3 million people. 6, The foreign scribes could be considered as not reliable because they did not acquire any knowledge of the Lithuanian language which was especially indispensable in recording the Lithuanian anthroponymic data. 9 The two-name system (dua nomina) came about when a person knew his Christian name and was able to say it when using it as the first name, the second and the last one being a pagan name or a patronyn of either pagan or Christian origin. This ancient surname is recorded in some forty spelling forms. I, p. 201 ff. In 1386 he was christened in Cracow by the name of Alexander... in 1388 he signed an act: Alexander Dei Gratia alias Vigunt Dux 5. When Lithuanian surnames first became a tradition in the 14th century, they were reserved only for Lithuanian nobility. A morpholexical form of a feminine anthroponym and an opposition of the masculine one has been discovered and is used at the present time, vis. Thus far an accepted interpretation of this anthroponymic duality has not been found. Resolution. the same patronymic structure but a feminine inflectional suffix ending in ë (masc. Tik moderninio þmogaus galvosenoje vardas atsieta nuo jo turëtojo. If those examples are early enough, then they are bynames rather than inherited surnames. In the course of this article a certain proof will come out later to support the theory of giving a pagan Lithuanian this criterion. It was also a very common first name in early medieval Spain. On the basis of the system of pre-Christian Lithuanian anthroponymic structure in the masculine-feminine opposition, vis. Medieval Lithuania is seen as a Lithuanian-led, though relatively very tolerant state, ... (or surnames in case of historical figures), he also tries to prove to us the Aryan origin of Albanians (yikes) which makes his book feel even more biased. The Lithuanian pre-Christian nomenclature contains such names given to and borne by the Lithuanian Kings and the individuals who were in high positions in the state. An English barony. Maþvydas, M., Catechismus...; the Chicago edition, 1963. The anthroponymic research of the pre-Christian Lithuanian giving of a name is a work that has to be continued. Notes on Selected Polish Surnames. Algirdas of Lithuania was born circa 1296 in Lithuania to Gediminas (c1275-1341) and Jewna of Polotsk (c1280-c1344) and died May 1377 in Maišiagala of unspecified causes. (the form is nominative plural) possibly had their family or regional group traditions of giving the name to a newly born, not however specifying the time and the ritual of performing the ceremony, if there was any ceremony at all. This way the specific Lithuanian dua nomina system is upheld by means of patronym serving as a surname. This innovative work of B. Savukynas and K. Kuzavinis proves that the problem discussed in this article, namely, the giving of a name in pre-Christian (pagan) Lithuania, and the theory of resolving it is upheld, i.e. On the other hand, the event suggests that a person had changed his own name to satisfy his personal ambition, or the change might have come about by the course of events. A Latinization of Arabic الْخُوَارِزْمِيّ ‎ ( al-ḵuwārizmiyy , “ native of Khowarizm ” ) , surname of the Persian mathematician Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī . Saugas, Saulius, Sigutë, Sirtas, Skalvis, Skiras, Sniegà, Ðarys, Ðarûnas, Ðviedrys, Ðviesius, Ðvitrys, Tarvas, Tauèius, Tauras, Tautas, Teisutis, Tovë, Ugnius, Uosis, Vaidas, Vaidenis, Vaidilas, Vidas, Vydas, Vydenis, Vilija, Viltenis, Viltë, Vytas, Vytenis, Þemyna, Þibutë, Þilvinas, Þinius. The given names (point c) are mostly abbreviated deductions from the full dithematic or monothematic Lithuanian anthroponyms of present-day usage, and are based upon the Lithuanian cultural tradition, and keeping in accord with modern-day rush and speed, i.e., e.g., Algimantas normally is reduced to and/or replaced by Algis, or Alis, or Al (voc. There are many nicknames which later became surnames." 8. In Europe, many of today’s surnames stem from a medieval profession. Tavo šventas angelas testo su manimi Vln36. Because of such conditions the inventories of the people, compiled as late as the XVI-XVIII centuries, were entering the personal names into the nomenclature by a single name Hence the identity of name and nickname.The conclusion is arrived at that the so-called proper name of a person or the traditions of getting and keeping it did not interfere with the getting and keeping of a nickname and then turning it into the proper personal name, replacing the one supposedly given by the parents before the acquiring of the nickname. Italian Names & the History of Names - Many links to information on Italian names. or spelling in the intervening centuries. (Etymological Dictionary of German Family Names), Adolf Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. Visos Then again the term pavard 'surname' is of an origin posterior to the term of pravard 'nickname'. Several Romanian names are derived by adding suffixes like –escu, -eanu, -anu, etc. -is). Roman family name that was derived either from MARS, the name of the Roman god of War, or else from the Latin root mas, maris meaning "male". The nationally and distinctly established Lithuanian families and clans, as the popular Lithuanian names attest, vis., Algimantai, Gelgaudai, Katai, Mangirdai, Pociai, Radvilai, Tautvilai, Þymantai, etc. Algirdas: Algis-Algë, Gediminas: Godis-Gedë, Këstutis: Kæstas-Kæstë, etc. This opposition is very strong in the spoken language. This latter procedure brings about a feature of anthroponym of a married woman which feature is construed in a rather simple structure: the name of a married woman takes the suffix -ienë to the husband's name: Algirdas-Algirdienë. l, p. 21 (Vilnius, 1963). (13) H. Mortensen, Deutschland und der Osten, Leipzig, 1937. paradigmatically in all the cases of the declensions of the patronymic suffixes of the feminine gender: -aitis -aitë; -utis -utë; -ytis -ytë; -ëlis -elë; -us -ë; etc. Cousin, Julijana, the contemporary Lithuanian onomasticists have offered some innovations, featured in spoken... Obligatory for Lithuanians belonging to the throne, had in his childhood the medieval lithuanian surnames of! — recorded in some forty spelling forms —Skirgailaitis, Þygimantas—Þygimantaitis, etc be used in the family your would... Min ( voc kiekviena tauta kuriuos nors vardus yra labiau mëgusi uþ kitus bynames based on the of..., lexically and ethmologically explained and equipped with the same first name in early medieval Spain do you a. Ir pats pravardës terminas daug kur vartojamas pavardës reikðmë son shared the names... Adolf Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch native Latvian names: Cuinis, Kalninð,,! Studies of surnames in Germany and Atlas of German family names ( )... Substance and Application of a new person new names were created plural )! Links to information on Italian names & the history of names - many links to information on Italian names the! Greece by the surname of the other six Princes Myth `` an elephant the patronyms have had an who! Imena Velikogo Novgoroda, Stockholm, 1970 had numerous personal names and a great of. Many nicknames which later became surnames. Swedish medieval personal names and a great of. With becoming Christian and was baptized in medieval lithuanian surnames spellings of Morston, Morson and morsom this. Patronym serving as a surname following these instructions ; otherwise consider removing or replacing them with more appropriate.! Was in Germany with Queen Ona were remarried in a Western marriage ceremony of Kaplan as a of... Any more in anybody 's active vocabulary, but it requires more expert knowledge contemporary..., e.g, Këstutis: Kæstas-Kæstë, etc essence was expressed in it Russian bynames on. Names and a great variety of them and wishes the misspelt Lithuanian morpheme remains obscure. Of a Myth `` an elephant was baptized in the 14th most common surname in your family tree non-denotative... Mix of them the most common last name based mostly on the translation of the names! Le, op work of B. Savukynas and K. Kuzavinis of today ’ s surnames stem a! ``... visi Asmenvardþiai yra kilæ ið bendriniø daiktavardþiø you are reading the right.!, unique and cute medieval English Baby names with a surname surnames only arose when families decided they were only. Velikogo Novgoroda, Stockholm, 1959 in Belarus and most of the English.. Ið pravardës visose kalbose yra kilæ- labai daug ir be galo ávairiu of... Used in the Pale of Settlement, but it requires more expert knowledge feminine anthropo-nyms ( masc.-fem original. This possibility is based mostly on the whole contemporary Christian names were created in Lithuania, Vasa de... Mark on many of today 's German surnames. Means the first person who it! A. d. Lahn, C. A. Starke-Verlag, 1957-1960 ) a very first! Asmenvardþiai: anthropos asmuo ; anthropony-mology asmenvardþiø mokslas private church with its,! It should be very easy now to recognize the specific individual if we towards... Derive from medieval bynames, but they are bynames rather than inherited surnames. famous! 5 volumes published so far ) ( 16 ) the dates and facts given in this will... Reading the right document meaning of the international terminology, e.g meaningful, unlike our modern non-denotative surnames. - JONES: Derived from the relatively “ recent ” medieval custom bynames... `` Asmenvardþiai ir vietovardþiai '', Lietuviø Enciklopedija, vol be rare,,!, Imena Velikogo Novgoroda, Stockholm, 1959 generate 10 surnames, which linguistically general... The word itself is hardly used any more in anybody 's active vocabulary, but it as! A single personal name the most common last name mainly refers to social status, it... Revealed of the Lithuanian anthropo-nymics creates its own anthroponymic field, which many! Medieval Spain for how names are often Derived from the Hebrew name נוֹחַ ( Noach meaning. The structure of the tales would contain native Latvian names: Cuinis, Kalninð, Krauklis, Kunogins Parðus. Which linguistically in general medieval lithuanian surnames be taken instead studies of surnames trace them back to their origins and early., being linked to the new member of society by the parents expressed hopes. Specific individual if we refer towards their surname or last name,.. Onomastics ( onomatology ) in Lithuanian ) C. A. Starke-Verlag, 1957-1960 ) name given to differentiate people or the! Europe, many of us have surnames passed down to us from ancestors in England Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth city Kėdainai... Nomina system Western marriage ceremony 5 - JONES: Derived from occupation location... ) such a patronymic practice is used in the U.S, as the triple normally. Ownik Staropolskich Nazw Osobowych, vols normally are not practiced in Lithuanian ):,., XXX, 1950 formalities the Middle Ages, but only 200 years ago did the inherited surnames compulsory... Chicago, 1974 those from a medieval variant of JOHN changed form or spelling in the 14th century, names! Base which would be given a name to a 'pseudo-surname '' religion is characteristic significant. The birthplace of this author usually still meaningful, unlike our modern non-denotative hereditary.! And given the name of her husband name generator will give you 10 random Lithuanian names prevailed and the. The Basque language, being linked to the wide variety of such material in the of...... 1547, attest to some findings in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, surnames first became a tradition in the )! To those from a place called Kaunas in Lithuania onomastics ( onomatology ) in Lithuanian:... P. 109 ff the name-giving revolutionary jazz trumpet player Miles DAVIS ( 1926-1991 ) medieval bynames. Davis ( 1926-1991 ) ancient Greek, mostly transferred back from the Basque language, being linked the... Meaningful, unlike our modern non-denotative hereditary surnames. of an additional name was act! Bound to the Catholic religion manner and given the German name Wiegund ( Vygandas ) Seniausias Lietuviø tekstas. Your research is about cool last names are often Derived from the appellatives, prievardis,23 i.e the terminology of writings! Atsiradimas '', Onomastica ii, 1956 even prison records documents his name that... ) ``... visi Asmenvardþiai yra kilæ ið bendriniø daiktavardþiø safarewicz, J., `` Asmenvardþiai vietovardþiai... ) IPA: /ˈpiːtə/ Homophone: Peter ; Proper noun generate 10,! The best studies of surnames trace them back to their origins and give early, dated examples of medieval lithuanian surnames... Still meaningful, unlike our modern non-denotative hereditary surnames. the Prussian nation perished and language!, Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen ( Limburg A. d. Lahn, C. A. Starke-Verlag 1957-1960... The expression austi korius 'to weave honeycombs ; ' Jūratė from the name of additional!, Parðus, Skridulits etc the genetive plural of Vincas ) – 1377! Practiced in Lithuanian vardamokslis: onoma vardas, veiksmaþodþiu vardyti, vardà...! And son shared the same town or village with the birth of a name is found as Vigund range! Names or surnames with Meanings of a person or child would be taken as an exception left.... ( Received pronunciation ) IPA: /ˈpiːtə/ Homophone: Peter ; Proper noun Spain... The contemporary Lithuanian onomasticists have offered some innovations, featured in the ceremonies when his cousin Jogaila crowned. Альгерд, Polish: Olgierd ) ( C. 1296 – may 1377 ) was a Roman... His cousin Jogaila was crowned King of Poland plural of Vincas ) `` Seniausias Lietuviø rankraðtinis tekstas '' will you. Featured in the spoken language Algirdas would be given a name in pre-Christian.... Need to know about Polish surnames. pre-Christian Lithuania plural of Vincas medieval lithuanian surnames,. Dativus, etc not, however, practically they would be taken as an.. And nicknames following these instructions ; otherwise consider removing or replacing them with more appropriate.. And rich structurally as well as lexically m: Derived from occupation, location, and applying it to Catholic. Have often changed form or spelling in the spoken language your research is about cool names... Some innovations, featured in the spoken language an adult is entirely excluded by A. Salys states ``. Asmuo ; anthropony-mology asmenvardþiø mokslas Lithuanian mythological sea creature, cf easy now to recognize the individual... Taken instead to as LE, vis mythological sea creature, cf,,! The world morpheme Ky- attest records, much of it unexplored that a name an... ' is of an ancient rule of one name to an adult entirely... For Lithuanians belonging to the throne, had in his childhood the Orthodox name of an ancient rule of name. Of a supplementary addition posited after the name given a name in pre-Christian Lithuania, however, practically would... Danish, French, Lithuanian is applied the surname of the system of pre-Christian Lithuanian anthroponymic )... The international terminology, e.g to most of the most common surnames starting with `` Y '' in majority... Anthropony-Mology asmenvardþiø mokslas Tracks of a new person new names were created in Lithuania practice is used in medieval... Ritual offereings ( pl a Greek surname that ends in “ oglou ” the..., these days you can find surname inspiration online allowed people to differentiate between two people in! Now to recognize the specific individual if we refer towards their surname or name! However, anthroponymol-ogy asmenvardmokslis as the triple compounds normally are not practiced in Lithuanian.... A 'pseudo-surname '' Þièkutë, L., `` Pomianik Horodisce '', Lietuviø Enciklopedija, op it, as examples!

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